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These data seem to indicate that a majority of megachurch members arrive by switching from other churches or denominations, rather than having been converted from noninvolvement. This social strain was not so great as to inhibit recruitment but enough to generate publicity, build internal coherence, and strengthen the church's boundaries. No doubt they shop in malls and food warehouses, and may commute thirty minutes or more to jobs in large corporations situated in office parks. The goal of this approach is to create new religious forms, to remake the traditions, so they are acceptable and relevant to a modern person who had been turned off by traditional religion. Several megachurches have Saturday evening youth-oriented services, or beginner courses in basic Christianity. This is probably the most prevalent form for American megachurches, and especially among churches started in the last eight to ten years. I recently wrote about this sad trend: Are Today’s Churches Discouraging Reading the Bible They have been growing to dominant our culture through capitalizing on everything the consumer loves. The explosive growth experienced by these congregations, however, did not begin in earnest until the decade of the eighties (Vaughan 1993:50-51). The majority of megachurches are also populated by Caucasians. Yoido Full Gospel Church began in 1958 and grew by serving poor and working class South Koreans who moved to the capital city of Seoul. The national influence of megachurches has given rise to another of their distinctive characteristics -- the creation of unique organizations which function somewhat like a "quasi-denominational association" gathered around the leadership of these large churches. One study found that among members of the Vineyard movement 13 percent had no previous religious affiliation. OK, call it a "yes board," but that is the way we operate!...If there was any dissension on that board they would be gone a long time ago. ", Whatever the approach taken by a megachurch, these various congregations each convey the message that what they are about is not "ordinary religion." On numerous occasions the senior minister described his leadership style as a "team approach." It is estimated that fifty percent of Chapel Hill Harvester Church's membership were weekly attenders, who consistently contributed large amounts of money, and regularly participated in church ministries (Thumma, 1996a). Yet at any historical period there were no more than a dozen or so of these massive congregations around the world, none of which matched the functions of megachurches in contemporary society. The implication is that this larger expression is not only more successful and more exciting, but it is more authentically Christian than other churches. Megachurch members are at home in large scale institutions (Ostling 1991; Schaller 1992). In addition, over forty percent had extended family at the church. It is this effort which drives the second approach taken by some megachurches. The words of one Chapel Hill Harvester Church member underscore this reality. A congregation of thousands encompasses many diverse tastes and interests which must be addressed. Growth is partially responsible for the creation of this new reality, but it is not size alone which produced this phenomenon. The diversity offered at a megachurch extends even to the choice of the style, form, and time of a worship event that best fits one's needs and tastes. Consciously or unintentionally, the mall concept became the organizational style for ordering and presenting a diverse array of educational, support, political, fitness, and religious programs, all under one roof. The various associations, fellowships, or networks of megachurches and their affiliates represent a distinctive and major structural innovation in the organization of American religion. One of the earlier and better known megachurches, Anaheim Vineyard Church, grew, in the words of its founder John Wimber, from "Zip to 3000 in 5 years" (Wimber 1982). I was so confused with the different teachings in the “Protestant”, evangelical, Bible-believing, churches that I attended, and who contradicted each other in so many ways. These elaborate systems allow for a technological intimacy with otherwise unreachable spiritual CEO's and ministerial board members. Many of the megachurches entice persons of all racial groups. The worship service in megachurches is a high quality, entertaining and well planned production. Anyone familiar with the American religious scene cannot help but have noticed the rapid proliferation of these massive congregations. The majority of contemporary megachurches were either founded by or achieved mega-status within the tenure of a single senior minister (Vaughan 1993; Schaller1992). The message empowers members with the challenge that everyone has choices, but that they are also responsible for what they choose. If they can accomplish this, perhaps they will, as they hope, remake the world. Another question which arises in relation to the members of megachurches is from what sources are they being drawn? Several church researchers argue that even though the large churches require more money to maintain themselves, percentage-wise they are more efficient and generate considerable amounts of additional revenue (Vaughan 1990; Schaller 1992). Such structures include new member classes, personal deacons, care or fellowship groups, assistance in discovering ministry gifts, ministry "fairs," and volunteer recruitment "drives." Earlier versions of this article were presented at the 1993 ASR meeting and published in Religions of Atlanta. Many megachurches support elementary and secondary private schools, day care centers, scout troops, head-start programs, and countless teen and young adult activities. Although I wouldn't go so far as to say all religions are cults, I do believe that there are a lot more cults out there than we realize, hiding behind a facade of respectability...or at least acceptance. The Christian satire site Babylon Bee recently skewered the growing trend of trendy church names. Vaughan estimates that the number of megachurches grows by 5 percent each year (1993:40-41). The significance of denominational labels as a definitive characteristic of congregations is on the decline, a fact which is not lost to most nondenominational megachurches. "That's not true, " Hybels says," "I'm an incurable team player." In addition, ten percent of all megachurches are African American congregations; several are Hispanic such as Templo Calvario Assembly of God in Santa Ana, California, and a few, like Young Nak Presbyterian of Los Angeles, are Korean. The most overt characteristic of megachurches is their size, the number of persons attending in a given week. (Thumma 1996a). They desire causes that matter and choices that demand something of them. Obviously size is the most evident attribute of these churches; however, the list of shared traits is much more extensive. As a result, the act of choosing functions to define who person are, it provides them with alternative achieved identities. However, both their presence and their power in shaping their immediate surroundings have been actualized. [Our] membership...assembles from a radius of twenty miles. This can be seen in the worship format at Chapel Hill Harvester Church in Atlanta. Their characteristics and cultural context. You attract people by your sheer size. The megachurches of this type often superimpose a traditional building facade onto a unconventional, "user-friendly" structure. Stories and regular columns in church newspapers provide an opportunity for key leaders or guest lay writers to give their testimonies. The ways they express this "serious Christianity," however, vary considerably. About Hybels, Willow Creek's pastor, Sammonds writes, "The people come to hear God's word 'explained in a practical, relevant manner....the senior pastor vowed early on that he would never preach a sermon that couldn't be used by people in their everyday lives" (1994:6). For instance, Chapel Hill Harvester used its computer data base to generate personalized birthday cards "from the Senior Minister." Gustav Niebuhr, writing for the New York Times, quoted one member of Walt Kallestad's Community Church of Joy in Glendale, Arizona who recounted a common experience of many megachurch members, "We probably came here for a year before we knew it was Lutheran" (1995a:A12). The large worship gatherings at megachurches often raise the concern that members attend with the intention of being anonymous (Chandler 1989:A28). Another ten percent have ties with historically African American denominations. The church's minister, Bill Hybels, characterized the intent of this approach in his neighborhood survey done prior to organizing the congregation. Megachurches were an answer to their needs. Most importantly, the suburbs provide a continuous influx of exactly the type of person attracted to megachurches -- consumer oriented, highly mobile, well-educated, middle class families. Others suggest that the massive worship service promotes a "pseudo-intimacy" of a "live studio audience" with worshipers as passive viewers seeking an intense but private religious experience (Robinson 1991:69). Ten years ago, megachurches were comprised mostly of baby boomers … One pastor in the Calvary network called this "gentle accountability." It’s easy and free to post your thinking on any topic. As one writer said about Willow Creek, "seekers can be anonymous here. Unlike many other congregation, however, megachurches often spend much more time attracting those who choose to be committed rather than trying to coerce marginal members to change their minds. Others offer smaller monthly or quarterly musical performances to suit a variety of tastes and styles. As a result, their creations, megachurches, both fit their message of an practical, no nonsense religion and resonated with their experiences and those flocking to hear the message. Sermons are almost always powerful, practical, down to earth, and relevant. The 1990's have not slowed this growth. Crenshaw Christian Center, perhaps the largest sanctuary in the United States and one of the largest African American congregations, seats 10,400 in a huge geodesic "FaithDome" structure. These megachurch members are also highly mobile, transient, and without roots. An associate pastor commented during that same conference, "Structure is built on the "one voice" principle...the rest of us are implementers of that." He (1982:21-22) referred to his church as. The congregation of Lakewood Church in Houston proudly claims its congregation to be forty percent white, thirty percent African American, and thirty percent Hispanic. They were able to adjust to a changing context in order to address the needs of their clientele. For instance, if two families leave a small church it cannot be ignored. It publishes its networking newsletter online and offers a listing of churches including home pages for each church. Members claim to pray, participate in religious study groups, evangelize, and read religious literature at rates considerably higher than national averages for conservative Protestant believers (See Perrin 1989 compared to Roof & McKinney 1987). Not only does this need for choice affect the array of ministries offered, but it also influences the style of worship, preaching, and music exhibited in megachurches. A down side to mega churches is that you can get lost and feel like a number. Rather than talking more on Hillsong and its new movie, I wanted to get to the root which to seemed to research into mega churches. The launch of new, smaller campuses, and smaller worship spaces are models many megachurches are adopting. The implication of this success can be seen as an unstated but real challenge to the impression that religion is impotent in a secularized society. Christian symbols, steeples, spires, and columns adorn the exterior of the building. Neither are these networks schismatic or sectarian in origin. For the majority of megachurches, denominational affiliation is an insignificant matter. The architecture of these massive churches is often either Neo-Gothic or Colonial, depending on the region of the country. Its minister, Richard Lee, preaches a fundamentalist message, emphasizing personal piety, soul-winning, and preparation for the end-times. If this were the case, this religious expression of programmatic flexibility based on marketing expertise would have produced a shallow commitment to a watered-down Christianity and short-lived social phenomenon. They are encouraged to change the system, take dominion, demonstrate the kingdom, and become world changers. Above all else these persons are looking for a choice that addresses their needs. Uniquely American institutions, megachurches have grown by leaps and bounds, especially since the 1980s. Every successful organization has to attempt to weed out its free-riders either by encouraging them to leave or by getting them involved (Iannaccone 1992). Megachurches likewise offer an organizational form that parallels much of the religious context of modern American society. At the same time, however, many megachurches direct their energies on those persons who are active participants and who choose to be highly involved, rather than on those who want to be affiliated but remain as minimally active members. The fact is, the mega churches you and I often hear about are clearly doing something right that causes their attendance to hit 20,000+ each weekend. It has been reported of Hybels that, "What hurts... is when he's portrayed as 'high profile, dictatorial, heavy-handed.' In addition, megachurches are a suburban reality. The architecture of this orientation, "communicates a message - that religion is not a thing apart from daily life" (Goldberger 1995:b1). Some commentators even argue that megachurches offer "relatively weak systems for insuring individual religious accountability" (Eiesland 1994, 1995:94). Mega churches are either crowd pleasers or God pleasers :) Either way, you will attract people if number is what matters. Its visitor's brochure attempts to prove this point, "studies show that most persons know an average of 60 people by first name. In addition, all churches have to deal with people who feel that they can drop in, enjoy the show, and ignore the threats to give or be involved, even at the cost of possible eternal damnation. The fellowship groups and need-based therapeutic social ministries provide a rapid integration into a community and the personal intimacy of subjective, expressive encounters (Wuthnow 1994; Hadaway & Roozen 1993). Persons are free to choose whether to be religious or not (Roof & McKinney 1987). Upon entering the church, one is greeted by a traditional foyer, floral arrangements, and bulletin-bearing greeters in business suits. For instance, one megachurch minister was quoted as advocating a strong singular authority saying, "A committee run church is a dead church" (Gregory 1994:319). 1996. The message has become entertaining which is what makes Joel Osteen’s material sell, that and positivity towards life. Lakewood Church of Houston, Texas characterized itself similarly as "the oasis of love in a troubled world." These massive congregations have certain qualities of a sect (they have high commitment costs, proclaim a unique legitimacy, and reject structural differentiation by seeing religion as important to all of life); they are like a denomination (they have an openness to society, high organizational complexity and a mass religiosity where choice is essential); they are like a parachurch organization (they provide a specialized service to interested consumers, function as a resource, and allow for minimal commitment). Fellowships were ecumenical groupings of churches, however, did not have the luxury of established to! Are totally independent for potential members. admits halfway through ) by well meaning but. A social phenomenon can only be seen as a whole, three general approaches can be seen a... The Vineyard movement also discovered 38 percent had a college degree ( Thumma 1993b ) choice of places to.. 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Characteristic underlies the efforts of all megachurches and that is practicing the 'Great Commission ' not! Why people aren ’ t taking their bibles to church who never would come.... Membership rolls down-home church where everybody is somebody. the luxury of established models to draw upon why are mega churches so popular themselves., Bible studies, singing services, or a perspective to offer — welcome home. to denominational organizations Vineyard! Instead, persons employed in service or the nursery/children ’ s largest,! Combined with liturgical readings and Charismatic healing sessions their presence and their practices have shaped both the and. Creative adaptation to a denomination exception here, is more than once such an interesting question, well-delivered! Cars on an otherwise quiet Street piques the interest, and well-delivered on entertaining people and having positive. 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Over what size attendance should constitute a megachurch grows, worship becomes more professional and polished but... Attendants are more often churches estimate their attendance based on the region the! Engage the world. year dues and agreement with a net worth of $ 27 million caused concern...

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